Türkçe En İyi İnternet Gazetesi
Günün Haberleri Giriş Sayfam Yap Favorilere Ekle Künye İletişim Son Dakika Ekle RSS
 
 
ANA SAYFA ANTALYA KKTC TÜRKİYE DÜNYA SPOR FOTO GALERİ VİDEO GALERİ
ANTALYA   24/31 °C
 
 
    Yaşlılar Günü’nde ‘sağlıklı yaşlanan bir kent için’ sloganıyla pedala bastılar  
 
    KKTC Cumhurbaşkanı Tatar: "Bize düşen görev milli politikayı sonuna kadar savunmaktır”  
 
    Konyaaltı HayatPark’ta caz rüzgarı devam ediyor  
 
    UBP Milletvekili Dinçyürek: “Kara propaganda yanlıştır, temelden yoksundur”  
Doç.Dr.Aysin Sinal'ın Özel Makalesine Büyük İlgi
Doç.Dr.Aysin Sinal ın Özel Makalesine Büyük İlgi
 
KKTC'de GAÜ Beşeri Bilimler Fakültesi Dekanı Doç. Dr. Aysin Sinal'ın İngilizce olarak yayınlanan Özel Makalesi büyük ilgi görüyor.
 
16 Ağustos 2022 Salı - 14:33

Haber: İrem Kesim/KKTC
Girne Amerikan Üniversitesi (GAÜ) Beşeri Bilimler Fakültesi Dekanı Doç. Dr. Psikanalist,Psikoterapist Hipnoter  Aysin Sinal'ın büyük ilgi gören İngizce özel makalesinde :
Psikanalitik kuram nasıl çalişır, eski teori ve teknikleri göz önünde bulundurarak yeni modern bilimsel teori ve teknikler ile mukayesesinin yapılması.
Özet: Bu makalenin temel amacı, psikanalitik terapi sürecinde karşılaşılan güçlükleri ve engelleri, hem geleneksel psikanalitik teoriyi hem de çağdaş bilimsel bulguları dikkate alarak bir vaka kavramsallaştırması esas olarak göstermeye çalışmaktır. Geleneksel psikanaliz teorisine bakarak, insan zihninin yorumlanması ve incelenmesinin, referans bölümünden de göreceğiniz gibi, kullanılanların
öznellik konusunu inkar edilemez bulacağı aşikardır; Uluslararası Psikanaliz Dergisi&;nden temel materyaller, Freud;un giriş dersleri ve histeri çalışmaları ve ayrıca çağdaş referans için Wilma Bucci;nin
ders notları (2009). Bu makale esas olarak direnişe odaklanacak ve o zaman tedavi nedir? Freud, analitik
tedavi kavramını "Psikanaliz Üzerine Giriş Dersleri" nde tanımladı. Bu yöntemle, psikanaliz kendisini
'konuşma tedavisi; ve iletişim, onun
Giriş: Teori ve teknik arasındaki ilişkinin doğasında var olan zorluklar hayatın bir gerçeğidir. Her ne kadar
psikanaliz zorlukların adil payından daha fazlasıyla sonuçlanıyor gibi görünse de, hiçbir şekilde etkilenen
tek kişi değildir. Öznellik, deneyim, kişisel sınırlamalar konularının pratikte nasıl devreye girdiğini görmek
için kişinin sürüş testini geçmesinin kişiyi nasıl iyi bir sürücü yapmadığı örneğini gündeme getirmek
yeterlidir. İnsan zihninin incelenmesiyle herhangi bir ilgisi olan şey, kaçınılmaz olarak "öznellik"
sorunuyla yüz yüze gelmek zorunda kalacaktır. Ve insan zihni yapay zeka tarafından işletilen bir
makineden başka bir şeye indirgenmedikçe, öznelliğin teori ve teknik arasındakiilişkiden çıkarılması
mümkün olmayacaktır. Fiziksel bilimlerden farklı olarak, psikanalitik gerçekleri oluşturmak ölçülemez
derecede daha zordur. Psikolojik aktivite ampirik bilim değildir. Psikanalitik teori, bir irade içinde tekrarlanabilecek ve kanıtlanabilecek bir şey değildir. şeklinde konulara değiniyor 

İŞTE O ÖZEL MAKALENİN İNGİLİZCESİ
ISSN 2039-2117 (online)
ISSN 2039-9340 (print)

Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
www.richtmann.org

Vol 11 No 5
September 2020

1

.

Research Article
© 2020 Aysin Sinal.
This is an open access article licensed under the Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)
Received: 27 July 2020 / Revised: 10 September 2020 / Accepted: 12 September 2020 / Published: 23 September 2020
How Psychoanalytic Process’s Work: Considering the Relation between
Traditional Theory and Contemporary Scientific Theory and Techniques

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Aysin Sinal
Psychology Department,
Faculty of Humanities,
Girne American University,
Üniversite Yolu Sk, Karaman 99320, Cyprus

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36941/mjss-2020-0049
Abstract
The main aim of this article is to try and demonstrate the difficulties and obstacles involved during the
process of psychoanalytical therapy, mainly a case conceptualization by taking both traditional
Psychoanalytical theory and contemporary scientific findings into consideration. By looking at the
traditional theory of psychoanalysis, it is palpable that interpretation and the study of the human mind will
eventually deem the issue of subjectivity undeniable, as you will see from the reference section, of those used;
essential materials from the International Journal of psychoanalysis, introductory lectures of Freud, and
studies of hysteria and also for the contemporary reference, lecture notes of Wilma Bucci (2009). This article
will focus mainly on resistance, and what then is the cure? Freud described the notion of an analytic cure in
‘Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis’. Through this method, psychoanalysis sets itself up as the
‘talking cure’ and communication, its weapon. Any process of communication which does not have the aim
of providing a cure isn’t in the strict sense of the word, psychoanalysis. According to Freud, the ego is the
source for three types of resistance while the super-ego and the Id is responsible for each other. This article
has no methodology since all the information used is based on theoretical information obtained from reliable
sources and all references have been included accordingly. According to Wilma, the contemporary
psychoanalytic process differs. Due to the nature of this article, the conclusion is the fact that further
research is required to observe how exactly theory relates to technique and therapy becomes more effective.
Keywords: Psychoanalytic Process, Traditional, Contemporary, Scientific, Theory, Technique
Introduction
The difficulties inherent in the relation between theory and technique are a fact of life. Although
psychoanalysis appears to end up with more than its fair share of difficulties, it is by no means the
only one affected. One has only to bring up the example of how passing one’s driving test does not
make one a good driver to see how issues of subjectivity, experience, personal limitations act come
into play in practice.
That which has anything to do with the study of the human mind will inevitably have to come
face-to-face with the issue of ‘subjectivity’. And unless the human mind is reduced to no more than a
machine run by artificial intelligence, it will not possible for subjectivity to be removed from the
relation between theory and technique.
Unlike physical sciences, establishing psychoanalytic facts is immeasurably more difficult.

ISSN 2039-2117 (online)
ISSN 2039-9340 (print)

Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
www.richtmann.org
2

Psychological activity is not empirical science. Psychoanalytic theory is not something which can be
repeated and proven at will in an experiment. Even if it is so, there is still the question of the
audience.
Given that all analytic work is carried out in a ‘closed’ and ‘secluded’ environment, between the
analyst and the analysand, with no independent third party, the question of whether an observation,
an intervention or an interpretation is the ‘correct’ one or not, must inevitably arise. In her paper,
‘what is a clinical fact?’. Accordingly, O'Shaughnessy (1994) argued that:
“Subjectivity is a word with many meanings. For a start, psychoanalysis studies psychic reality, which
in one sense is subjective reality. And then, all human studies depend more on the knowing mind than
the study of physical nature; in psychoanalysis, the analyst’s mind is the instrument investigating the
mind of the patient. This raises the alarming idea of psychoanalysis being doubly subjective, from the
analyst’s as well as the patient’s side”.
She made an interesting point in the same paper about the age we live in, an age where the “
objective achievements of machines dazzle” and “make us see them as everywhere superior- even in
questionable areas... In the same vein, a tape-recording is presumed to be a more objective record of a
session than an analyst’s written and mental notes” (O'Shaughnessy, 1994).
So what then is a clinical fact? Is it verifiable? How will one know that it is a claim to truth and
not a mere observation by the analyst? Freud (1917) debated this in his ‘Introductory Lectures’ as
follows:
“But you will now tell me that, no matter whether we call the motive force of our analysis transference
or suggestion, there is a risk that the influencing of our patient may make the objective certainty of
our findings doubtful... That is what our opponents believe; and in especial they think that we have
‘talked’ the patients into everything relating to the importance of sexual experiences...” (Freud, 1917).
Here comes his reply:
“Anyone who has himself carried out psycho-analyses will have been able to convince himself on
countless occasions that it is impossible to make suggestions to a patient in that way... After all, his
conflicts will only be successfully solved and his resistances overcome if the anticipatory ideas he is
given tally with what is real in him” (Freud, 1917).
In addition to the issue of ‘subjectivity’, there is perhaps another which brings many difficulties
to analytic work- the issue of different psychoanalytic schools and how their orientations define the
analytic cure.
Differing views such as, what constitutes the analytic setting, variable sessions versus fixed
sessions, interpretation of the transference versus interpretation in the transference, integration of
lost objects versus re-experiencing psychical conflicts – these are all options open to the direction of
treatment.
It is not my intention here to debate the merits or demerits of each school. Suffice to say that,
however adequately or inadequately theory measures up in the stark reality of the analytic setting
and whichever psychoanalytic school one chooses to adopt, a theory is something central to analytic
work. Without an organised body of knowledge, there can be no organised practice called
psychoanalysis. Theory guides the analyst. It provides the foundation and the framework within
which analytic work can be carried out. Despite discernible differences, let us not forget also that the
existence of commonly held beliefs, for example, the recognition of an unconscious, the ego’s need
for defences and the repetition of ideas formerly repressed in the form of transference onto the
analyst, from the common ground for psychoanalysts.

ISSN 2039-2117 (online)
ISSN 2039-9340 (print)

Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
www.richtmann.org

Vol 11 No 5
September 2020

3

The Notion of an Analytic Cure
Through its method, psychoanalysis sets itself up as the ‘talking cure’ and communication, its
weapon. Any process of communication which does not have the aim of providing a cure isn’t in the
strict sense of the word, psychoanalysis.
What then is the cure? Freud described the notion of an analytic cure in ‘Introductory Lectures
on Psycho-Analysis’ as follows:
In order to maintain a successful analytic treatment which results in overcoming resistances, the
doctor and the patients needs to go through an efficient work. When the existing resistances are lifted
successfully, the patient’s state of mind will go through some permanent changes that enhance their
development and enable them to protect themselves against any possible mental issues (Freud, 1917).
Lifting such resistances is one of the most important functions of any successful analytic treatment
which “the patient has to accomplish it and the doctor makes it possible for him with the help of
suggestion operative in an educative sense. For that reason, psychoanalytic treatment has justly been
described as a kind of after-education” (Freud, 1917).
For Freud, overcoming resistances and the working through of resistances are central to the
notion of an analytic cure. This makes for a fascinating academic study but in practice, probably
terribly frustrating for both the analysand and analyst. As such, are the perfect candidates for a
discussion on the relation between theory and technique!
This article will focus mainly on resistance followed by a brief discussion on working through
towards the end. It will draw upon Freud’s work beginning from ‘studies on Hysteria’ in 1895 until his
‘Analysis Terminable and Interminable’ which was published in 1937. References to papers published
in the Internal Journal of Psychoanalysis as well as the writings of Joseph Sandler and Darian Leader
will also be made along the way.
The Historical Development of Resistance
Freud never wrote a book or a paper titled ‘Resistance’, yet, ‘resistance’ is used frequently by Freud in
his writings. His reference to resistance goes as far back as the early days of ‘Studies on Hysteria’
(Freud, Breuer, & Strachey, 1895).
Resistance as a clinical concept emerged in Freud’s initial work with his patients while he was
still using hypnosis and the ‘Pressure technique’. At the time, Freud regarded resistance as anything
which prevented his patients from recalling to memory, material analysis. For example, he noted in
his work with Fraulein Elisabeth von R that there existed a force which was opposed to remembering.
Later on, in the same book, Freud described ‘resistance’ like this:
I had to overcome a resistance, the situation led me at once to the theory that by means of my physical
work I had to overcome a physical force in the patients which was opposed to the pathogenic ideas
becoming conscious (been remembered) ... a physical force, aversion on the part of the ego, had
originally driven the pathogenic idea out of association and was now opposing its return to memory.
The hysterical patient’s ‘not knowing’ was in fact a ‘not wanting to know’ – a not wanting to know
which might be to a greater or less extent conscious. The task of the therapist, therefore, lies in
overcoming by his physical work this resistance to association. (Freud, 1955)
In many ways, we can credit resistance with the discovery of ‘Free association’ in psychoanalysis.
Instead of insisting on ‘remembering’ which Freud found to be a great resistance on the part of his
patients, he asked his patients to ‘Speak freely’ and this succeeded finally in breaking the impasse so
that the treatment could move on.
Interestingly, Freud believed that this ‘not wanting to know’ was to a greater or lesser extent
conscious. This is in contrast to his later views which placed the emphasis squarely on the role of him

ISSN 2039-2117 (online)
ISSN 2039-9340 (print)

Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
www.richtmann.org

Vol 11 No 5
September 2020
4

unconscious in putting up defences.
In his book ‘Interpretation of Dreams’ in 1900, Freud argued that “whatever interrupts the
progress analytic work is a resistance” (p. 517).
He compared resistance to ‘censorship’ in dreams and attributed the repulsion of unacceptable
ideas, impulses and memories to these to mechanisms. Hence, resistance was no longer directed
exclusively to fighting back repressed memories, but it was also believed to be responsible for the
holding back of unacceptable impulses.
Freud believed that resistance always presents, he argued that as the treatment goes by, the
patients’ resistance will follow up throughout each treatment steps. Therefore, the therapist should
be aware of such resistance and consider such resistance in every associations and actions of the
patient. This way, the therapist will be able to achieve a balance between the recovery process and
patient’s strike throughout the therapy (Freud, 1912).
Resistance, though sometimes concealed, is always present and intensity changes during
analytic treatment. The closer the analyst gets to the core of the repressed material, the greater will
be the resistance to cover. This, I suppose what one would call the ‘ups and downs’ of analysis:
“For resistance is constantly altering its intensity during the course of a treatment; it always increases
when we are approaching a new topic, it is at its most intense while we are at the climax of dealing
with that topic” (Freud, 1917).
Five Classifications of Resistance According to Freud
Freud laid down the distinction between five different types of resistance ‘Inhabitations, symptoms
and anxieties’ (Freud & Breuer, 2001). By this time he had already developed his ‘structural model’ of

the mental apparatus, a three-fold division of the psyche into what he referred to as the ego, super-
ego and id. According to Freud, the ego is the source for three types of resistance while the super ego

and Id are responsible for each other. The five classes of resistance proposed by Freud are elaborated
in the following few pages:
Resistance due to the ego
In his work ‘Analysis Terminable and Interminable’, Freud argued that “the ego treats recovery
itself as a new danger” (1937, p. 238).
Repression resistance:
Apart from transference resistance, repression resistance would be among the earliest forms of
resistance identified by Freud. It is a resistance put up by the ego to prevent repressed material from
becoming conscious. In other words, the ego defends by directing its attention away from the
unacceptable idea and impulses. This ongoing expenditure of energy to avoid unacceptable ideas and
impulses, Freud called anticathexis.
An example of repression resistance is the absence of free association or the ‘inability’ by the
analysed to think of anything to say.
Transference resistance:
Transference resistance takes place through a false connection or a displacement of repressed
impulses or ideas. During analysis, the efforts of the analyst to bring to consciousness this repressed
material is met with a transfer of such repressed ideas onto the person of the analyst.
Instead of remembering and recognizing the material as belonging to the past, the analysand
repeats this material by acting out in the present. This form of resistance whereby the analysand
reproduces repressed material not as a memory, but as an action is transference resistance. For the
analysand, repeating under resistance is a form of remembering. An example of transference
resistance is transference love.
Gain from illness:
Freud believed that there is a third kind of resistance caused by the ego and he called it ‘gain
from illness’ transference. He explained the formation of this form of resistance by a process of

ISSN 2039-2117 (online)
ISSN 2039-9340 (print)

Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
www.richtmann.org

Vol 11 No 5
September 2020

5

assimilation by the ego. Sometimes, the ego refuses to give up some forms of obtained through the
manifestation of a symptom or illness. When this happens, the ego treats these symptoms as part of
itself and proceeds to assimilate the symptom.
Any attempt at recovering is met with strong resistance from the ego as it seeks to protect what
it perceives to be the many advantages to be derived from a continuation with the symptom. In a
way, this form of resistance goes beyond the pleasure principle.
An example of this would be patients suffering from anorexia nervosa. Further investigation
may reveal that the patient has just discovered his or her partner has been having an affair. The
symptom of anorexia nervosa gratifies the ego’s demand for revenge by including others in the
patient’s suffering. Also, by falling ill and refusing to get well, the patient obtains pity and attention
and may even succeed preventing the partner from leaving the relationship. In other words, the
patient stands to gain in other important ways, through his or her suffering.
Resistance due to the id:
Id resistance is a form of resistance which entails ‘working through’. Freud explained that; “Even
of the ego has decided to relinquish its resistance, it still finds difficulty in undoing the repressions;
and we have called ‘this period of strenuous effort which follows after its (the ego’s) praiseworthy
decision, the phase of ‘working through’ (Freud & Breuer, 2001).
Freud described such resistance as one which is due to “adhesiveness of the libido”. He also
called such behaviours as ‘resistance from the id’. However, he discussed that “But with the patients I
hear have in mind, all the mental process, relationships and distributions of force are unchangeable,
fixed and rigid. One finds the same thing in very old people...” (Freud, 1937).
‘Repetitive running away’ behaviour is an example of id resistance. Whenever a situation is
perceived to be no longer acceptable or pleasurable, the person suffering from Id resistance ‘runs
away’-moving from job to job or from relationship to relationship without ever coming any closer to
finding out what the problem is.
Any attempt in curing such a person may have to result in working through that is, many more
so-call at (mistakes) in the handling of love relationships before he or she is finally able to break free
of this vicious circle.
Resistance due to the super-ego:
Super-ego resistance in the form of resistance brought about by the analysand’s sense of guilt
and the need for self-punishment. Freud regarded this form of resistance as the most difficult to
detect and to deal with. Super-ego resistance results in a paradoxical reaction by the analysand. Any
distinct relief or improvement results in a shrinking back by the analysand from the prospect of
recovery. The old illness reinstates itself and the analysand ends up believing that treatment by
psychoanalysis is not the answer to his or her problems.
“I am so happy I could die!” is probably not that far off from the truth for someone suffering
from super-ego resistance. Having one’s wish fulfilled makes one so full of guilt that it becomes an
unbearable load.
Whether there is a relapse, a denial of the therapeutic effects of analysis, or a running away
from the treatment, Freud , in his work ‘The ego and the Id’, would argue that these are all
manifestations of a negative therapeutic reaction:
“Every partial solution that ought to result, and in other people does result, in an improvement or a
temporary suspension of symptoms produced in them for the time being an exacerbation of their
illness; They get worse during treatment instead of getting better. ‘They exhibit what is known as
’negative therapeutic reaction” (Freud, 1961).
“In the end, we come to see that we are dealing with what may be called a ‘moral’ factor, a sense of
guilt, which is finding its satisfaction in the illness and refuses to give up punishment” (Freud, 1923, pp.
49-50).
Why does the super-ego behave in this way? Freud believed that the reprisal of an extremely

ISSN 2039-2117 (online)
ISSN 2039-9340 (print)

Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
www.richtmann.org

Vol 11 No 5
September 2020
6

severe super-ego may be due to that death drive: “The great significance which the sense of guilt has
in neuroses makes it conceivable that common neurotic anxiety is reinforced in severe cases by the
generation of anxiety between the ego and the super-ego (fear of castration, fear conscience, of
death)” (Freud, 1961).
Examples of super-ego resistance would be the destructive behaviour of those who are wrecked
by success or who become severely depressed upon attainment of a long-cherished goal.
Kurt Cobain, the lead singer of the very successful 90’s band Nirvana, committed suicide at the
height of the band’s success. He found success unbearable. In his suicide note to his wife, Courtney
Love, he described the pain hopelessness and depression which haunted him. He found no relief in
being alive and so he chose the only alternative he thought was open to him – death.
Working Through
Freud understood perfectly well the problems of self-doubt and frustration faced by analysts who see
no improvement in their analysands, even when they believe the right interpretations have been
pointed out to them. Freud (1958) observed that:
“The analyst had merely forgotten that giving the resistance a name could not result in its immediate
cessation. One must allow the patient time to become acquainted, to work through it, to overcome it
by continuing, in defiance of it, the analytic work according to the fundamental rule of analysis”.
The analyst has nothing to do but to wait. The repressed materials have been made conscious
and pointed out to the ego but the tendency of id to repeat past defensive behaviour has to be
overcome one by one. It follows from the basic law of simultaneity that every single one of the id’s
attachment to the complex of representations associated a particular conflict, has to be severed
before a person can be considered ‘cured’.
Even everyday language has a way of describing working through. ‘Old habits die hard’ and ‘You
can’t teach an old dog new tricks’ imply stubborn resistance to change. An interesting clinical fact is
the re-appearance of symptoms after years of analytic work. What was there at the start comes back.
Does this mean then, that the analysis is right back where it started? By no means. Darian Leader
explained this strange clinical phenomenon using a musical analogy:
“In a fine piece of music, as the initial motive is broken down, recombined and rearranged, it’s meaning
and its effects on the listener change. When it returns at the end, resonances may be profoundly
different from what they were at the start. The idea one entertains consciously at the start will be
adjusted and corrected through the symbolic work of the analytic process, to produce something new,
a secure sequence that may be found in many other fields of research.” (Leader, 2000).
Working through is a trial of patience for both analyst and analysandd. Although there are
technical differences, I would argue that working through is, in many ways similar to mourning. In
mourning, one continues to feel an acute sense of loss – long after it no longer makes sense for one to
feel that way. There seems to be lagging behind the sense of reality in mourning. Similarly in working
through, the id lags behind the ego in letting go of the past.
Frustrating as it may seem, it is this process of learning and unlearning called working through
which Freud describes as that part of the analytic work which “distinguishes psychoanalysis from all
other forms of treatment by suggestion” (S.E. Vol. XII, Papers on Technique, 1914, page 155).
Interpretation, acting out, transference etc., guide the voyage of analysis to its penultimate
point... working through stands as its final frontier.
Conclusion
The relation between theory and technique is an interesting one. It leads us down the ‘familiar road

ISSN 2039-2117 (online)
ISSN 2039-9340 (print)

Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
www.richtmann.org

Vol 11 No 5
September 2020

7

of same nagging questions’ – ‘What is a clinical fact?’, ‘Is it verifiable?’, “How does language affect the
way a clinical fact is described?” “How should an analyst respond when clinical facts upset theory?”
and finally, ‘What will progress in theory and technique depend on?”
As an example of how language and theory impact clinical work, let us consider for a moment
how analysts with different psychoanalytic orientation treat resistance. Without ignoring the
importance of external influences, a Freudian would treat by looking for the source of the psychical
conflict i.e. by getting closer to the unconscious while a Kleinian would seek to accomplish the
mission by examining the role of projective identification in the creation of pathological object
relations.
Also, on what basis should an analysand choose his or her analyst? How will choosing one
psychoanalytic school over another alter the direction of the treatment? Can more research be done
on ‘the alternate view’, or is this a brief that can’t be filled anyway? Given that discovery is protected
by the four walls of a consulting room and unrepeatable by another analyst whatever his or her
orientation, how is another point of view, and indeed a comparison possible for psychoanalysis?
As a body of science, psychoanalysis more closely resembles. Thomas Kuhn’s shared paradigm
model than Karl Popper’s ‘deductive’ model. This means that a fact may be described in many
different ways so long as the ‘shared paradigm’ is adhered to. There are arguably too many theories in
psychoanalysis... and half-jokingly, some would say ‘Blame Freud!’
Similarity can be found between Freud’s classical theory of psychoanalysis and the ‘Big Bang’
theory. Freud created an impact so great and far-reaching that expansion of the psychoanalytic
universe goes on till today...
In general, finding a new perspective on existing theories is a healthy development for any
discipline which wants to be taken seriously as a science. As long as any expansion in old theories
enlighten it in a useful and unique way, why not? But one should be wary of analysts who invent a
new language to explain old ideas. Are they motivated by an ulterior motive of wanting to lay claims
to originality?
On the other hand, according to Wilma Bucci, Adelphi University, looking at it from the new
perspectives from Cognitive Science and Affective Neuroscience, major contributions of
Psychoanalysis are;
• Theoretical: To open the scientific Study of Psyche-Soma (mind, brain, emotion, body)
interactions.
• Methodological: The Psychoanalytical method of free association in the context of the
therapeutic relationship is being used in order to maintain a more naturalistic setting.
• Clinical: It enables psychotherapists in developing an efficient approach in treating
emotional disorders.
Psychoanalysis is inherently a multi-system theory and emotional disorders caused by an idea
that is split from this organizing network. It divides influential behaviour and emotion, cause
physical symptoms. Cure (Change) occurs through talking in the context of a relationship (Bucci,
2009).
According to Wilma Psychoanalysis is inherently a multi-system theory. The divisions of
psychic apparatus have been formulated in different versions stages of the psychoanalytical theory in
the terms such as conscious/preconscious/unconscious; ego/id; the primary and secondary processes
of the thought and others; through all these versions, the concept of multiple systems of formats of
thought remain.
Adaptive functioning involves the integration of ideas in a network of associations that regulate
and organize life (Bucci, 2009). The human organism is multi-code, multi-format emotional
information processor with partial and limited interaction among systems. Dissociation is inherent in
the human information processing system and may be adaptive as well as maladaptive. As it is cited
in Solano (2010), Bucci (2009) believed that avoidant dissociation happens “when integration of new
information is actively blocked.” (p. 1455).

ISSN 2039-2117 (online)
ISSN 2039-9340 (print)

Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences
www.richtmann.org

Vol 11 No 5
September 2020

8
A Final Thought on the Future Technique
Ending with a quote by Greenson, which sums up very nicely, the relation between theory and
technique as well as the pitfalls that hinder the future of psychoanalysis?
“When Freud discovered the crucial importance of systematically analyzing the resistances of
his patients, he was some twenty years ahead of discovering the ego implications of this procedure.
Today we seem to know a great deal more about ego functions than we are able to use directly in our
technique (Hartmann, 1951). “But I believe that our greatest hope for progress in technique lies in a
better integration of clinical, technical, and theoretical knowledge.” (Greenson, 1974)
References
Bucci, W. (2009). Lo spettro dei processi dissociativi. Implicazioni per la relazione terapeutica. Psicanálise e
neuroscienze. Milano: Angeli.
Freud, S., Breuer, J., & Strachey, J. (1895). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund
Freud, Volume II (1893-1895): Studies on hysteria.
Freud, S. (1900). The interpretation of dreams. In the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud.
Freud, S. (1901). Fragment of a case of hysteria, Standard Edition.
Freud, S., & Strachey, J. (1911). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud,
Volume xii (1911-1913): The case of Schreber, papers on technique and other works.
Freud, S. (1917). Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological
Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XVI (1916-1917): Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (Part III), 241–
463.
Freud, S. (1961). The ego and the id. In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund
Freud, Volume XIX (1923-1925): The Ego and the Id and Other Works (pp. 1-66).
Freud, S., & Breuer, J. (2001). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 2).
Random House.
Freud, S. (1937). Analysis terminable and interminable, Standard Edition, vol. 23. London: Hogarth.
Freud, S. (1955). The psychotherapy of hysteria from studies on hysteria. In The Standard Edition of the Complete
Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume II (1893-1895): Studies on Hysteria (pp. 253-305).
Freud, S. (1958). Remembering, repeating and working-through (Further recommendations on the technique of
psycho-analysis II). In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume
XII (1911-1913): The Case of Schreber, Papers on Technique and Other Works (pp. 145-156).

Greenson, R. R. (1974). Loving, hating and indifference towards the patient. International Review of Psycho-
Analysis, 1, 259-266.

Hartmann, H. (1951). Ego psychology and the problem of adaptation.
Leader, D. (2000). Freud's footnotes. Faber & Faber.
O’Shaughnessy, E. (1994), International Journal of Psychoanalysis Greenson, R. (1974), The Technique and Practice
of Psycho-Analysis
Sandler, J. Et al (1992), The patient and the Analyst, Karnac Books Leader, D. (2000), Freud’s Footnotes, Faber and
Faber
Solano, L. (2010). Some thoughts between body and mind in the light of Wilma Bucci’s multiple code theory. The
International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 91(6), 1445-1464.

 

Arkadaşına Gönder   Yazdır   Önceki sayfa   Sayfa başına git  
 
 
Vali Yazıcı :Kadınlarımız Başımızın Tacıdır
 
Başkan Uysal ,Tunus’ta Kaleiçi rüzgarı Estirdi
 
 
Etiketler :
FACEBOOK YORUM Yorumlarınızı Facebook hesabınız üzerinden yapın hemen onaylansın...
YORUMLAR     Onay bekleyen yorum yok.
 

Küfür, hakaret içeren; dil, din, ırk ayrımı yapan; yasalara aykırı ifade ve beyanda bulunan ve tamamı büyük harflerle yazılan yorumlar yayınlanmayacaktır.
 
 
 
   
 
Bu haber henüz yorumlanmamış...

 
DİĞER HABERLER
 
Bakan Çavuşoğlu: KKTC üniversiteleri için ayrılan kontenjanların doluluk oranı yüzde 74.80
KKTC Milli Eğitim Bakanı Nazım Çavuşoğlu, bugün açıklanan YKS merkezi ...
KKTC Başbakanı Üstel'den Kıbrıs Barış Harekâtı’nın 2. Aşamasının Yıldönümü Mesajı
KKTC Başbakanı Ünal Üstel, Kıbrıs Barış Harekâtı’nın ikinci aşamasının ...
KKTC Sağlık Bakanı İzlem Gürçağ Altuğra'dan Yeni Girne Hastanesi Açıklaması
KKTC Sağlık Bakanı Altuğra, Yeni Girne Hastanesi’nin yapımı için ihale ...
Milletvekili Akpınar :Akdeniz Hava Trafiğimizle Anavatanla Daha Güçlü Bağlar Oluşturalım
Demokrat Parti (DP) Girne Milletvekili ve Girne Amerikan Üniversitesi ...
 
 
Başbakan Üstel :Abdülhamid Han’ın sefere çıkmasının heyecan, gurur ve mutluluğunu yaşayorum
KKTC Başbakanı Ünal Üstel, Mavi Vatan’da hidrokarbon arama çalışmalarına ...
Hasipoğlu, İslami Dayanışma Oyunları’nda KKTC’nin Neden Olmadığını Açıkladı
Ulusal Birlik Partisi Genel Sekrteri Oğuzhan Hasipoğlu, “Gerekli lobi ...
KKTC'de Doktorların muayene, tanı tedavi ve cerrahi işlemlerinin ücretlerine zam
KKTC'de Doktorların muayene, tanı, tedavi ve cerrahi işlemlerinin ücretleri ...
KKTC'de Bakan Erhan Arıklı: Limanların acil olarak özelleştirilmesi gerekiyor
KKTC Bayındırlık ve Ulaştırma Bakanı Arıklı, KKTC limanlarının acil olarak ...
 
 
KKTC'de 1 Ağustos Toplumsal Direniş Bayramı Coşkuyla Kutlanıyor
KKTC Güvenlik Kuvvetleri Komutanlığı’nın 46’ncı, efsanevi Türk Mukavemet ...
İşte KKTC'de İşte PCR ve antijen test merkezleri çalışma saatleri
KKTC ​Sağlık Bakanlığı, PCR ve antijen test merkezlerinin çalışma gün ve saatlerini açıkladı.
Ercan Havalimanı yeni terminalinde ticari alan kiralamaları başladı
T&T Havalimanı İşlemeciliğinden yapılan açıklamaya göre, kiralamalarda ...
KKTC İçişleri Bakanlığından aracıyla Türkiye'ye gidecek olanlar için önemli duyuru
KKTC İçişleri Bakanlığı aracıyla Türkiye'ye gidecek olanlar için önemli ...
 
 
  GÜNÜN MANŞETLERİ
KKTC Cumhurbaşkanı Tatar: 'Bize düşen görev milli politikayı sonuna kadar savunmaktır”

KKTC Cumhurbaşkanı Tatar: "Bize düşen görev milli politikayı sonuna kadar savunmaktır”

  Şimdi 5 Gazetemiz 1 Reklam Ajansımızın Dahada Büyüme Zamanı
 
  KKTC'de Fahiş Ev Kiralarına Kim Dur Diyecek ?
  ÇOK OKUNANLAR
www.buyukantalya.com
  YAZARLAR
 
 
KKTC'de Fahiş Ev Kiralarına Kim Dur Diyecek ?
 
Mehmet Kesim
 
 
İnsanlık Hali
 
Hüseyin Kaya
 
 
Ve Son Söz Seçmende
 
Reşit KESİM
 
 
Şimdi 5 Gazetemiz 1 Reklam Ajansımızın Dahada Büyüme Zamanı
 
Byturco diyor ki...
   
  Alkışlar Turgül Tomgüsehan İçin  
   
  Yılmaz Erdoğan  
  FOTO GALERİ
Güzeller Güzeli Rus Spor Spikeri, Sosyal Medyaya Damga Vuruyor

Güzeller Güzeli Rus Spor Spikeri, Sosyal Medyaya Damga Vuruyor

   
  BONNE VIE Dergisi  
   
  ​Mehmet Akif Alakurt  
  ÇOK YORUMLANANLAR
 
  Bak Sen Sıla'ya!
  FACEBOOK'TA BYTURCO
  TWITTER'DA BYTURCO
  ANKET
     
 
Düzenli Olarak Spor Yapabiliyor Musunuz?

Evet
Hayır

Sonuçlar Anket arşivi
 
     
 
 
 
  •Künye
  •İletişim
  •Reklam
  •Sitene EKle
 
 
  •Antalya
  •KKTC
  •Türkiye
  •Dünya
  •Spor
  •Özel Röportaj
 
 
  •Siyasiler
  •Yaşam
  •Çeşitli
 
 
  •Spor
  •Magazin
  •Antalya
  •KKTC
  •Türkiye
  •Dünya